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Table 1 Balance of covariates between NHB and NHW veterans in pre-matched, patient-matched, and spatially-matched samples; “Stand. Diff.” denotes the absolute value of the standardized difference and “Service Percent \(\ge\) 50” indicates that the veteran’s rate of service connected disability was greater than 50\(\%\)

From: Propensity score matching for multilevel spatial data: accounting for geographic confounding in health disparity studies

Variable Pre-matched Patient-matched Spatial-matched
NHB NHW Stand. Diff. NHB NHW Stand. Diff. NHB NHW Stand. Diff.
Age 62.00 67.49 0.573 64.26 64.23 0.003 64.51 64.54 0.003
Female 7.43 2.67 0.219 3.63 4.15 0.038 3.56 4.52 0.069
Service Percent \(\ge 50\) 45.97 39.41 0.133 45.15 46.61 0.041 44.09 43.80 0.008
Married 52.83 65.79 0.266 56.25 62.72 0.187 56.54 62.86 0.183
Substance Abuse 11.04 4.46 0.248 6.92 6.63 0.016 6.89 6.37 0.030
Cerebrovascular Disease 3.58 3.24 0.019 3.70 3.57 0.010 3.91 3.19 0.055
Congestive Heart Failure 8.58 11.07 0.084 9.30 9.42 0.006 9.97 8.84 0.055
Cardiovascular Disease 8.46 15.64 0.222 9.96 10.03 0.003 11.00 9.95 0.048
Depression 35.94 31.55 0.093 34.78 35.46 0.020 34.37 33.84 0.016
Hypertension 88.41 84.44 0.116 87.62 87.03 0.025 87.25 86.43 0.034
Obesity 27.23 25.87 0.031 27.04 26.89 0.005 27.04 26.59 0.014
Psychoses 6.83 3.81 0.135 5.44 4.93 0.033 5.47 4.95 0.033
Homeless 0.91 0.18 0.099 0.75 0.25 0.100 0.70 0.25 0.093