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Table 1 A summary of the environmental data used, data source, and time frame

From: The good, the bad, and the environment: developing an area-based measure of access to health-promoting and health-constraining environments in New Zealand

Environment data Extracting features Defining constructs Geocoding methods Access metrics/other detail
Supermarkets
 Ministry for Primary Industries (2017)
 Territorial Authorities (2013–2015)
Extracted based on propriety classifications provided by MPI/TA and the business name of multinational franchises   Geocoded to address level
99% match rate using Google API
Full street address provided
Fast food
 Ministry for Primary Industries (2017)
 Territorial Authorities (2013–2015)
Extracted based on propriety classifications provided by MPI/TA and the business name of multinational franchises Food outlets: businesses that manufacture, prepare, or sell food or food products are required to be registered through the Ministry for Primary Industries Food Control Programme and/or Territorial Authorities
Health licenses
Geocoded to address level
99% match rate using Google API
Full street address provided
Takeaway
 Ministry for Primary Industries (2017)
 Territorial Authorities (2013–2015)
Extracted based on propriety classifications provided by MPI/TA and the business name of national businesses providing takeaway food options   Geocoded to address level
99% match rate using Google API
Full street address provided
Dairy/convenience
 Ministry for Primary Industries (2017)
 Territorial Authorities (2013–2015)
Extracted based on propriety classifications provided by MPI/TA and the business name of retailers selling pre-packaged convenience foods (includes dairy, convenience, superette, service stations, small grocers) Geocoded to address level
99% match rate using Google API
Full street address provided
Fruit and vegetable
 Ministry for Primary Industries (2017)
 Territorial Authorities (2013–2015)
Extracted based on propriety classifications provided by MPI/TA and business name (includes fruit/vegetable stores, produce retailers, green grocers)  Geocoded to address level
 98% match rate using Google API
Full street address provided
Physical activity facilities
 Territorial Authorities
(2013–2015)
 Zenbu Directory (2006–2017)
Extracted based on propriety classifications provided by TA/Zenbu (includes gym, fitness centre, sports hall, tennis, rugby, swimming, soccer, bowls, golf, hockey, cricket, martial arts, rowing) Activity facilities: facilities where physical activity is the main purpose: Geocoded to address level
98% match rate using Google API
Location of activity facilities only. Does not contain sports parks due to their similarity with green space
Not systematically registered through government bodies
Alcohol outlets
 Alcohol Regulatory and Licensing Authority (ARLA) (2015–2018)
 Licence register
Extracted based on proprietary classifications provided by ARLA Alcohol outlets: in NZ the sale of alcohol to the public requires the seller to have a licence Geocoded to address level
92% match rate achieved in ArcGIS geocoding which were correct to the CAU level
x, y coordinate provided
Alcohol outlet address data had a high prevalence of missing data which required manual processing
Gaming facilities
 2018 Department of Internal Affairs register
Extracted based on proprietary classification in register for all licenced gaming venues Defined consistent with the Department of Internal Affairs register Data were geocoded using Google Maps Geocoding API through R and ggmap package (98% match rate) Full street address provided
Green spaces
 Extracted in March 2019 from Land Cover Database (LCDB) V5.0
Extracted based on proprietary classifications in LCDB Indigenous Forest, Mangrove, Exotic Forest, Gorse and/or Broom, Deciduous Hardwoods, Manuka and/or Kanuka,Urban Parkland/Open Space, Broadleaved Indigenous Hardwoods, Matagouri or Grey Scrub, Sub Alpine Shrubland, Fernland, Herbaceous Saline Vegetation, Mixed Exotic Shrubland, Alpine Grass/Herbfield, Herbaceous Freshwater Vegetation, Flaxland Official layer extracted from the New Zealand Land Cover Database Version 5.0 N/A
Blue spaces
 Extracted in March 2019 from Land Cover Database (LCBD) V5.0 and WaterAreas Topo50
Extracted based on proprietary classifications in LCDB Lake or Pond, River, Estuarine Open Water, Lake, Lagoon, Reservoir, Pond, and Canal, including coastline Official layer extracted from the New Zealand Land Cover Database Version 5.0 N/A