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Table 2 Median distance to environmental ‘goods’ and ‘bads’ in New Zealand (in km)

From: The good, the bad, and the environment: developing an area-based measure of access to health-promoting and health-constraining environments in New Zealand

NZDep 2018 deprivation decile Environmental ‘bads’ Environmental ‘goods’
Fast-food Takeaway Dairy Alcohol Gaming Physical activity facilities Fruit and vegetable outlets Green spaces Blue spaces Supermarkets
Overall 2.28 1.30 1.18 0.68 1.65 1.60 4.59 0.14 0.64 1.81
D1 (least deprived) 3.06 1.94 1.88 0.95 2.53 2.07 5.53 0.11 0.56 2.32
D2 2.85 1.79 1.68 0.89 2.34 1.94 5.24 0.14 0.57 2.26
D3 2.86 1.74 1.59 0.84 2.13 1.91 5.45 0.14 0.62 2.21
D4 2.60 1.55 1.47 0.78 1.95 1.78 5.02 0.14 0.65 2.04
D5 2.42 1.38 1.24 0.73 1.72 1.64 5.11 0.14 0.65 1.88
D6 2.43 1.34 1.27 0.69 1.67 1.71 5.97 0.15 0.67 1.87
D7 1.97 1.10 0.97 0.61 1.42 1.46 4.42 0.15 0.66 1.66
D8 1.70 0.92 0.82 0.53 1.19 1.28 3.81 0.15 0.64 1.44
D9 1.54 0.84 0.72 0.50 1.10 1.20 3.17 0.15 0.66 1.30
D10 (most deprived) 1.94 0.97 0.87 0.58 1.33 1.47 3.34 0.11 0.67 1.44
*Significance < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001
  1. *Significance denotes results of test for group differences