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Table 1 Sample characteristics, stratified by level of perceived safety during daytime walking and for the total sample

From: Feelings of safety during daytime walking: associations with mental health, physical activity and cardiometabolic health in high vacancy, low-income neighborhoods in Detroit, Michigan

  Feel unsafe walking Neutral Feel safe walking Total in our sample Blockgroup data for our study areaa Blockgroup data for Detroita
N 24 10 30 64 6456 1,339,576
Female, % 45.8 90 63.3 60.9 69.9 68.5
African–American, % 100 100 80 90.6 86.7 47.5
Employed, % 60.9 44.4 46.7 51.6 38.5 53
Married or partnered, % 12.5 11.1 20 15.9 5.1b 13.2b
Own home, % 34.8 11.1 42.9 35 56.8 62.1
Number children, mean (sd) 1.0 (1.4) 1.9 (3.0) 0.5 (0.9) 0.9 (1.6) 0.3 (0.2) 0.3 (0.2)
Age, mean years (sd) 44.7 (13.9) 43.4 (18.0) 42.9 (15.9) 43.7 (15.3)  
Length residency, mean years (sd) 4.1 (4.4) 5.0 (2.8) 8.6 (11.3) 6.3 (8.4)
Perceived stress score, mean (sd) 19.3 (6.9) 18.8 (5.2) 15.2 (6.1) 17.3 (6.5)
Depressive symptoms, mean (sd) 56.7 (11.6) 57.9 (9.0) 48.3 (9.0) 52.9 (10.8)
MVPA, min/day mean (sd) 28.1 (22.5) 18.2 (11.4) 19.5 (22.7) 22.8 (21.4)
BMI, kg/m2 mean (sd) 32.8 (8.5) 30.4 (6.1) 29.0 (6.8) 30.7 (7.5)
A1C, % mean (sd) 5.8 (1.5) 5.4 (1.4) 5.4 (0.7) 5.5 (1.2)
Crime indexc, mean (sd) 3.3 (1.3) 3.2 (1.5) 3.1 (1.5) 3.2 (1.4)
Blighted lots, mean (sd) 22.4 (10.8) 18.5 (11.2) 15.6 (9.7) 18.6 (10.7)
Blighted buildings, mean (sd) 18.1 (7.3) 17.8 (10.1) 17.7 (8.3) 17.9 (8.1)
Area of park in km, mean (sd) 0.7 (1.6) 0.2 (0.6) 0.3 (1.1) 0.4 (1.3)
  1. MVPA moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity, BMI body mass index, A1C glycated hemoglobin
  2. aBlockgroup data from 2015 to 2019 ACS data. Source: [113]
  3. bCensus data do not include partnered adults
  4. cQuintiles from high (5) to low (1)