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Table 2 Characteristics of the study population and the area (data from school entrance examination, city of Hannover, 2010–2014, n = 22,678)

From: Comparing different data sources by examining the associations between surrounding greenspace and children's weight status

  N (%) Mean Standard Deviation Minimum Maximum
Dependent variables
 Body mass index percentile 50.1   27.9 0 99.8
 Overweight* (> 90th percentile) 9.70%     
 Obese > 97th percentile 4.10%     
Individual level factors
 Age    6 0.4 4
 Sex      
  Boys 51.50%     
  Girls 48.50%     
Migration background
 Yes 49.40%     
 No 50.60%     
Family structure
 Single parent/  Blended family 2.80%     
 Nuclear family 97.20%     
Siblings
  ≥ 2 siblings 30.50%     
  < 2 siblings 69.50%     
Child day care participation
  < 3 years 18.70%     
  ≥ 3 years 81.30%     
Parental educational level
 Higher 36.90%     
 Middle 26.20%     
 Lower 36.90%     
Birth weight
 High (> 4000 g) 10.60%     
 Normal (2500–4000 g) 80.10%     
 Low (< 2500 g) 6.60%     
Area level factors
 Unemployment rate   8.70% 3.20% 1.90% 16.10%
 Proportion of residents with migration background in the area   25.60% 9.50% 6.50% 50.30%
 Residential density (residents per hectare)   32.9 32.9 1 168
Greenspace availability indices (Area level)
 Greenspace availibility by NDVI   41.70% 20.00% 0.90% 87.10%
 Greenspace availibility by UA   22.30% 19.10% 0.10% 81.50%
 Greenspace availibility by OSM   29.80% 16.30% 0.90% 88.90%
  1. * Overweight refers to the status including both pre-obesity and obesity
  2. *NDVI: Measurement of calculating the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) by analysing Landsat satellite images; OSM: the OpenStreetMap dataset; UA: the European Urban Atlas dataset