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Table 3 Estimates from two-level linear modelling predicting pre-school children’s BMI z-score (Data from school entrance examination, city of Hannover, Germany, 2010–2014, n = 22,678)§

From: Comparing different data sources by examining the associations between surrounding greenspace and children's weight status

  Model 1a
Availability index by NDVI
Model 1b
Availability index by UA
Model 1c
Availability index by OSM
b (SE) 95% CI b (SE) 95% CI b (SE) 95% CI
Individual-level independent factors
 Girls
(Ref. Boys)
0.09*
(0.01)
(0.06;
0.12)
0.09*
(0.01)
(0.06;
0.12)
0.09*
(0.01)
(0.06;
0.12)
 Children with migration background
(Ref. German children)
0.18*
(0.02)
(0.15;
0.22)
0.19*
(0.02)
(0.16;
0.22)
0.19*
(0.02)
(0.15;
0.22)
 Single parent/Blended family (Ref. Nuclear family) 0.07
(0.04)
(− 0.01;
0.16)
0.08
(0.04)
(− 0.01;
0.16)
0.08
(0.04)
(− 0.01;
0.16)
 Two or more siblings
(Ref. one or none siblings)
0.06*
(0.02)
(0.02;
0.09)
0.05*
(0.02)
(0.02;
0.09)
0.06*
(0.02)
(0.02;
0.09)
 Childcare less than 3 years (Kita)
(Ref. 3 year or longer)
− 0.02
(0.02)
(− 0.06;
0.02)
− 0.02
(0.02)
(− 0.06;
0.02)
− 0.02
(0.02)
(− 0.06;
0.02)
Parental educational level(Ref. Higher education)
 Lower education level 0.27*
(0.02)
(0.24;
0.31)
0.27*
(0.02)
(0.24;
0.31)
0.27*
(0.02)
(0.24;
0.31)
 Middle education level 0.15*
(0.02)
(0.12;
0.19)
0.15*
(0.02)
(0.12;
0.19)
0.15*
(0.02)
(0.12;
0.19)
Birth weight
(Ref. Normal)
 High
(> 4000 g)
0.37*
(0.02)
(0.32;
0.42)
0.37*
(0.02)
(0.32;
0.41)
0.37*
(0.02)
(0.32;
0.42)
 Low
(< 2500 g)
− 0.25*
(0.03)
(− 0.31;
− 0.19)
− 0.25*
(0.03)
(− 0.31;
− 0.19)
− 0.25*
(0.03)
(− 0.31;
− 0.19)
Area-level socio-demographic factors
 Residential density 0.01
(0.01)
(− 0.02;
0.02)
0.01*
(0.01)
(0.001;
0.03)
0.01*
(0.01)
(0.001;
0.03)
 Unemployment rate (%) 0.04*
(0.02)
(0.01;
0.08)
0.05*
(0.02)
(0.01;
0.08)
0.04*
(0.02)
(0.01;
0.08)
Area-level greenspace indicators
 Greenspace availability index − 0.01*
(0.01)
(− 0.05;
− 0.01)
0.01
(0.01)
(− 0.01;
0.03)
0.01
(0.01)
(− 0.01;
0.02)
  1. *p < 0.05 (highlighted)
  2. $Model 1a: Model on children’s BMI z-score adjusted for individual level factors & other area level factors presented in the table plus greenspace availability by NDVI; Model 1b: Model plus greenspace availability from European Urban Atlas dataset; Model 1c: Model plus greenspace availability from OpenStreetMap dataset