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Table 1 Descriptive statistics of the variables included in the study

From: Differences in depressive symptoms by rurality in Japan: a cross-sectional multilevel study using different aggregation units of municipalities and neighborhoods (JAGES)

  Men Women
Participants (n) Prevalence of depressive symptoms (%) Participants (n) Prevalence of depressive symptoms (%)
Age     
 65–74 41,265 16.3 44,033 15.2
 75–84 24,268 18.3 26,502 17.9
 ≥ 85 4127 22.6 4627 24.5
Population density (indicator for municipality-level rurality)
 Highest 15,610 16.4 16,180 15.5
 High 13,661 18.3 15,043 17.0
 Middle 16,188 16.1 17,023 14.8
 Low 12,045 18.9 13,179 18.5
 Lowest 12,156 17.9 13,737 18.5
Time to reach the DID (indicator for neighborhood-level rurality)  
 Shortest 13,740 18.0 15,080 16.8
 Short 11,003 17.7 11,931 15.8
 Middle 16,832 17.3 18,032 16.6
 Long 14,603 16.8 15,291 16.4
 Longest 13,482 17.2 14,828 17.8