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Table 2 Descriptive statistics of community social capital (civic participation, social cohesion, and reciprocity) by rurality

From: Differences in depressive symptoms by rurality in Japan: a cross-sectional multilevel study using different aggregation units of municipalities and neighborhoods (JAGES)

  Number of school districts Civic participationa Social cohesiona Reciprocitya
Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD)
Population density (municipality-level rurality)        
 Highest 394 0.86 (0.16) 1.56 (0.15) 1.97 (0.049)
 High 259 0.81 (0.15) 1.53 (0.15) 1.96 (0.051)
 Middle 87 0.82 (0.13) 1.63 (0.11) 2.00 (0.023)
 Low 116 0.72 (0.15) 1.63 (0.12) 1.99 (0.038)
 Lowest 81 0.60 (0.16) 1.67 (0.12) 1.99 (0.033)
Time to reach the DID (neighborhood-level rurality)        
 Shortest 349 0.81 (0.16) 1.52 (0.15) 1.96 (0.051)
 Short 125 0.84 (0.14) 1.59 (0.12) 1.98 (0.038)
 Middle 185 0.83 (0.16) 1.58 (0.15) 1.98 (0.051)
 Long 140 0.80 (0.18) 1.61 (0.12) 1.99 (0.034)
 Longest 138 0.72 (0.21) 1.68 (0.13) 1.99 (0.037)
  1. SD standard deviation
  2. aEvaluated in school districts. Unstandardized value