Skip to main content

Table 3 Prevalence ratios [95% confidence intervals] of depressive symptoms among men: the results of multilevel analysis

From: Differences in depressive symptoms by rurality in Japan: a cross-sectional multilevel study using different aggregation units of municipalities and neighborhoods (JAGES)

  Null Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4
Municipality-level factors
 Population density (ref. highest)
  High   1.10 [0.95,1.28] 1.09 [0.98,1.21] 1.09 [0.96,1.24] 1.08 [0.95,1.22]
  Middle   0.99 [0.89,1.11] 0.94 [0.86,1.04] 1.04 [0.92,1.18] 1.07 [0.96,1.19]
  Low   1.22 [1.15,1.30] 1.08 [0.99,1.18] 1.24 [1.14,1.36] 1.26 [1.18,1.35]
  Lowest   1.16 [1.06,1.26] 0.96 [0.88,1.05] 1.20 [1.10,1.33] 1.16 [1.07,1.27]
Neighborhood-level factors
 Time to the DID (ref. shortest)
  Short   0.97 [0.88,1.06] 0.98 [0.90,1.06] 0.99 [0.90,1.09] 1.00 [0.93,1.08]
  Middle   0.94 [0.86,1.04] 0.97 [0.91,1.04] 0.97 [0.90,1.04] 0.98 [0.91,1.05]
  Long   0.91 [0.83,0.99] 0.92 [0.87,0.99] 0.94 [0.87,1.02] 0.96 [0.89,1.04]
  Longest   0.90 [0.81,1.00] 0.89 [0.83,0.96] 1.00 [0.90,1.10] 0.96 [0.88,1.06]
 Community social capital   
  Civic participation    0.87 [0.85,0.90]   
  Social cohesion     0.88 [0.86,0.90]  
  Reciprocity      0.90 [0.88,0.91]
Individual-level factors      
 Age (ref. 65–74)      
  75–84   1.13 [1.09,1.17] 1.13 [1.09,1.17] 1.13 [1.10,1.17] 1.13 [1.09,1.17]
  ≥ 85   1.38 [1.30,1.48] 1.39 [1.31,1.49] 1.40 [1.32,1.49] 1.39 [1.30,1.48]
Random-effect part of the model
 Between municipality variancea 0.016 (0.004) 0.009 (0.003) 0.005 (0.002) 0.007 (0.003) 0.007 (0.002)
Median rate ratio 1.13 1.10 1.07 1.09 1.08
 Between neighborhood variancea 0.002(0.002) 0.001(0.002) 0.000(0.000) 0.000(0.000) 0.000(0.000)
Median rate ratio 1.04 1.03 1.00 1.00 1.00
  1.  aStandard errors in parentheses