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Table 2 Comprehensive definition of each GIS/GPS application in dementia care and research

From: The role of geographic information system and global positioning system in dementia care and research: a scoping review

GIS/GPS application Definition
Disease mapping or surveillance Studies containing any spatial mapping to depict the geographical distribution of dementia outcomes or any other related phenomena (58) ranging from simple descriptive maps to more analysis-based clustering maps. Also, disease surveillance refers to more comprehensive information about dementia and conditions which can be used to evaluate and interpret the effectiveness of preventive interventions and control health measures in the public health contexts (59).
Dementia care Using GIS/GPS tools or technologies or other spatial approaches such as descriptive mapping in dementia care or rehabilitation to support care, such as GPS monitoring system to locate missing patients (60) or managing patients’ health activity (61). Also, this category includes articles that focus on measuring spatial accessibility to dementia care services. The spatial accessibility describes a population’s ability to reach to health centers and facilities when needed (62). This category focus on the direct role of GIS approaches in the care of patients.
Contextual/risk factor analysis Examining the spatial relationship of any environmental or contextual factors with dementia (63).
Planning The studies identify patients’ needs and issues with resource allocations and develop health plans specific to the study area (64).
Basic research Not-applied studies aim to assess patients’ behavioral patterns (26), out-of-home mobility (65), or other concepts to understand the patients situation.
Data preparation GIS/GPS approaches are used to prepare data for non-spatial modellings. For example, interpolation (66) and buffer analysis (67) have measured exposures data for non-spatial modellings.